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Logic Pro X – Apple Pro Tr – David Nahmani –

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You can click the button to the right of any dimmed loop name to download and install the Loop Pack that contains that loop. A broad search such as this one will return a lot of results, so you will now narrow the search. Each time you click a keyword button, the results list is shortened because fewer loops match the narrowing keyword search. You can preview loops by clicking them.

The loop is selected, its blue loop icon turns into a speaker, and the loop plays. When a loop is playing, its waveform is displayed at the bottom of the Loop browser. To preview different sections of the loop, you can click anywhere on the waveform to move the playhead. At any time, you can click another loop to preview it, or click the currently playing loop to stop playback.

In the control bar, the information display shows the default project tempo of bpm beats per minute. When a project is empty, Apple Loops are previewed at their original tempos. Once a region is present in a project, Apple Loops are previewed at the project tempo. In the results list, you can see that Deep End Beat was produced at a tempo of 92 bpm. The loop plays back at the 92 bpm project tempo.

The loop does seem to groove better at the slower tempo. This loop has a nice funky feel, and you are going to use it as the beat for your music project. The workspace is the area below the ruler and to the right of the track headers, where regions are arranged to build a song. The loop is imported, and an audio region is placed on the audio track at the very beginning of the project. An alert asks if you would like to use the tempo information embedded in the loop.

The Loop Browser shows that the Good Life Beat original tempo is 88 bpm, a little slower than your current 92 bpm tempo. You will use that new tempo. The displayed tempo may be rounded off by 1 bpm. Your project now contains a single drum loop on a single track that plays only during bar 1. Later you will use those navigation chops to preview bass lines while listening to your new drum region and add more loops.

Navigating the Project One of the big advantages to producing music with a computer is that the whole song is laid out right before your eyes. This representation makes it extremely easy to jump to a specific part of the song, start playback, quickly return to the beginning, or continuously repeat a section.

Logic offers many ways to navigate your project. In the following two exercises, you will use the transport buttons and their key commands, and you will learn how to continuously repeat a section of the project, which will allow you to keep playing the drum loop while you preview bass loops.

Because many producing tasks are repetitive, you may find yourself playing, stopping, and positioning the playhead every few seconds. Minimizing the time it takes to perform these basic operations will greatly improve your workflow and save valuable time. Although you may initially find it easier to click transport buttons with the mouse, moving a mouse with your hand while keeping your eyes on the screen is actually a time-consuming task.

Using key commands to control playback can significantly reduce that time, increasing your workflow efficiency as your fingers build up muscle memory. To fully master key commands, you first need to understand key focus, which determines the pane of the main window that will respond to key commands. To start this next exercise, you will preview an Apple Loop to make sure your Loop Browser has key focus. Notice the blue frame around the Loop Browser.

It indicates that the Loop Browser has key focus and is ready to respond to all Loop Browser key commands. Only one area at a time can have key focus.

In the Loop Browser, the selected loop starts playing. The blue frame appears around the Tracks area to show that the Tracks area has key focus. In the Tracks area, the playhead starts moving, playback begins, and during bar 1, you can hear the drum region on your track.

The Tracks area has key focus, so the project starts playing back rather than playing the loop selected in the Loop Browser. When a key command, such as the Preview key command, could have an effect on multiple open panes, the pane that has key focus is the one that responds.

To navigate your project, you can also click the transport buttons in the control bar. The playhead stops, and the Stop button is replaced with a Go to Beginning button. The playhead jumps one bar forward each time.

The playhead jumps one bar backward each time. You can also position the playhead precisely where you want it by clicking in the ruler. To start or stop playback at a specific location, you can double-click the lower half of the ruler. Playback starts from bar 3. You can also position the playhead without interrupting playback.

You can again hear your drum loop. Playback stops and the playhead moves to the location you clicked. Continuously Repeating a Section Sometimes when you are working on a specific section of your project, you may want to repeat a section multiple times without stopping playback.

You will continue building your project by adding a bass track. To determine which bass loop works best with your drums, you will use Cycle mode to continuously repeat bar 1 as you preview bass loops in the Loop Browser. You need to adjust the cycle area so that it spans the same length as the drum region.

To do so, you will first select the drum region, which was deselected in the previous exercise when you clicked the background of the workspace. The region is highlighted to indicate that it is selected. In the control bar, the Cycle button is turned on, and in the ruler, the cycle area turns yellow, indicating that Cycle mode is enabled.

The cycle area shows the section of the song that will repeat. The start and end position of the cycle area, called left and right locators, match the start and end of the selected region, and the cycle area goes from bar 1 to bar 2.

The playhead starts moving, and your drums play. When the playhead reaches bar 2, it immediately jumps back to the beginning of bar 1 and continues playback. While your drums continue playing, you can preview some bass loops. All keyword buttons are disabled. Only loops from the Hip Hop collection are displayed in the results list.

The loops in the results list are sorted by increasing tempo. After a moment, Logic syncs the loop with the project and you can hear it playing, grooving along with the drums in your project. Most of them are too synthetic for this project, but Skyline Bass seems to have the right sound and it works with your drums.

A new track is automatically created for the new Skyline Bass region. In the first bar, you can hear both the drum loop and the bass loop; then the drums drop off while the bass continues playing for three more bars.

You can now hear the entire bass line, which is even more melodic than the limited preview you heard previously. As you work in Logic, keep saving your project at regular intervals to avoid losing any of your work. And if you work with other musicians in your studio, they will love you for not interrupting the playback and ruining their creative flow every few bars! Building Up the Rhythm Section All the material you use for a project is contained in regions that are on tracks in the workspace.

Creating an arrangement is a little like playing with building blocks—moving, copying, or repeating regions as needed to determine at which points specific instruments start and stop playing. In this exercise, you will start building an arrangement with the drum and bass loops, and later add more loops to complete your project.

First, you will loop both regions so they play continuously. The inspector appears. Region parameters for the selected region s are displayed in the Region inspector near the top.

The Region inspector shows the parameters of the Good Life Beat region. In the workspace, Good Life Beat is now looping until the end of the project.

In the workspace, both the drum and the bass regions are now looping. The drums and bass are grooving together perfectly. For the next few exercises, in the control bar, click the Inspector button or press I and click the Apple Loops button or press O to turn those two areas on and off as needed. All keyword buttons are reset.

A new track is created for the Fine Line Beat region. Since Fine Line Beat is still selected, you can access its region parameters at the top of the inspector. The Fine Line Beat region is now looping in the workspace. Since Fine Line Beat will be used for the intro, you can move it to the top of the workspace.

The tracks are reordered with the new Fine Line Beat track at the top. To select multiple regions at once, you can click in the workspace background and drag the pointer over the regions. You can now move them both at the same time. The help tag displays positions and lengths in bars, beats, divisions, and ticks. You will often refer to a position or a length with those four numbers. A sixteenth note contains ticks.

Note that by default, in the control bar, the LCD displays the position of the playhead using only the first two units, bars and beats. However, Good Life Beat is a bit too loud. Now the two drum loops blend together.

It feels sparse, but the beat is original enough to capture attention, which is the role of an intro. Then at bar 5 both the Good Life Beat and Skyline Bass regions on tracks 2 and 3 come in, making the beat sound complete and introducing the melody. To be able to edit the Fine Line Beat region in the intro without affecting its loops to the right, you first have to copy the region to bar 5. When Option-dragging to copy regions, always make sure you release the mouse button first and the Option key last.

If you try to release both at the same time, you may sometimes release the Option key slightly before the mouse button without noticing, and then the region is moved instead of copied. The new Fine Line Beat.

To create a break, you need to stop the region from looping. To resize the region comfortably, you need to zoom in until you can clearly see the individual drum hits on the waveform. To use the zoom tool, you hold down Control and Option and then drag the area you want to magnify. The area you highlighted expands to fill the workspace, and you can clearly see individual drum hits on the waveform. Zooming in and out efficiently to see exactly what you need takes practice.

You can Control-Option-drag to zoom in multiple times and Control-Option-click the workspace multiple times to zoom back out through the same zoom levels. To create the break at the end of the Fine Line Beat region, you will drag its lower-right corner to the left until the final two drum hits are hidden.

The mouse pointer turns into a Resize pointer you can drag to determine where the region stops playing. The drum break creates a sudden void at the end of the intro, which reinforces the impact of the drums and bass.

But a void calls out to be filled! That break in the drum loop is the perfect time to capture the attention of the listener by introducing the bass a few notes earlier. This time you will copy the bass region from bar 5 to bar 1, and resize the bass region in the intro from the left so it plays only the final few notes.

This time you will use the Z key to zoom in and out of the selection. The Skyline Bass. The workspace zooms out to display all the regions. You can use zoom sliders or key commands to fine-tune the zoom level. The workspace zooms out horizontally, and you can see a few more bars in your ruler. In that case, the left edge of the region stays at the same position on your screen.

When the playhead is offscreen, the content to the left of the workspace stays at the same position on your screen.

When zooming vertically with the zoom sliders or Command-Arrow keys, the selected region stays at the same position on your screen. If no regions are selected, the selected track stays at the same position on your screen.

It works! You start with an original but commanding beat with kicks and handclaps—then all of a sudden, the bass announces the melody with a few pickup notes while the beat drops. On the first beat of the next bar, all three tracks play the entire groove together. That little break at the end of the intro really calls attention to the layered drum and bass groove that starts after the intro. Remember your newly acquired navigation and zooming skills.

You will continue using them to finish this arrangement, and throughout the rest of this book and long after. Build Up the Arrangement Now that you have the rhythmic foundation of your project the drums and bass , you can continue building up the arrangement and avoid monotony by adding melodic elements. Adding Lead Synths In the next exercise, you will add a couple of synth arpeggio loops.

And rather than let them loop throughout the song, you will keep things moving by alternating between the two synth melodies. You already have a solid rhythmic section with bass and low kick drums, so now you are looking for rather clean and high-pitched sounds. If necessary, adjust the zoom level in the workspace so you can comfortably drag both loops to two new tracks.

You will resize the Deal Breaker Arpeggio region to make it one bar long, the same length as the Barricade Arpeggio region. You will now copy both regions so they play alternately. The two synths bring much-needed melody and movement to the song, and they work well in answering each other, each one successively playing its melody.

Currently, both synths sound as if they are coming from the center of the stereo field. To give them a little space, you can spread them apart acoustically by positioning them to either side of the stereo field. If tracks are selected automatically when you select regions on those tracks, you can change this behavior in Logic preferences. The track selection is unaffected by the region selection.

You can now hear the two synths playing from opposite sides of the stereo field, which adds dimension to the music and helps separate the two instruments. Creating a Break Until now, you have kept your project interesting by introducing new elements on a regular basis: the bass at the end of the intro, the drums at bar 5, a synth at bar 9, and another synth at bar But if you keep building your song by adding more elements, at some point those additions may backfire.

The song can become bloated, with the arrangement losing focus, the mix becoming muddy, and the listeners tuning out. Who wants that? By the end of the new synth section, the listeners are so used to hearing the drums and the bass that they may no longer pay attention to them. If you remove them, you can create a big impact. At the top of the Tracks area, look at the tool menus: The menu to the left corresponds to the tool assigned to the mouse pointer.

The menu to the right corresponds to the tool assigned to the mouse pointer when holding down Command. Currently, the left-click tool is assigned to the Pointer tool arrow icon and the Command-click tool is assigned to the Marquee tool crosshair icon. Click it again to close it. The Loop Browser sometimes shows multiple loops with similar names, and that usually means that the loops all follow the same groove, they all follow the same chord progression, or they are meant to work together.

The results list shows loops containing Skyline in their names. The loops sound like they would all work great together because they all follow the same harmony and rhythm. You will now create the break by deleting the drums in track 2 and the bass in track 3 for the entire time the piano is playing. The Marquee tool places a white highlight rectangle around the selected section of the loops. The section of the loops selected by the Marquee tool is deleted. Some loops are turned into regions before and after the empty space, so the tracks stop and resume playing at the beginning and end of the removed section.

The mouse pointer turns into a Loop tool. Dragging offers the advantage of seeing the exact position in a help tag. The Fine Line Beat. The break brings much needed space and silence, interrupts the flow of the rhythmic section, and automatically shines a light on the two remaining elements: the drum loop and the piano.

After the break, the rhythmic section resumes, but the ending at bar 21 is too abrupt. You will finally shorten the new copy of the piano region so it ends with a sustaining note, which will work better for an ending. You have arranged your first song. Then two synths share the lead melody for a few bars before the bass and drums abruptly stop to leave room for a piano break.

Finally, the bass and drums groove returns, and the song finishes with a few sustained piano notes. Really nice! You will now quickly mix the song and later export it to share it. Mixing the Song Now that you have arranged your regions in the workspace, you can focus on the sound of each instrument and how they sound as an ensemble. Choosing Names and Icons for Tracks and Channel Strips You will open the Mixer and name your channel strips so you can easily determine which instrument they control.

You will then adjust the Volume faders and Pan knobs to change levels and stereo positions, and use plug-ins to process some of the instruments. At the bottom of the main window, the Mixer opens. The channel strips are named after the Apple Loops that you previously dragged to the workplace.

To more quickly locate instruments, you can assign the channel strips more descriptive names. To edit the name on a track header and on its corresponding channel strip, you can double-click either and type the new name.

A text entry box appears, and the current name—Fine Line Beat—is selected. Both the first channel strip in the Mixer and track 1 in the Tracks area are renamed Beat Loop. A text entry box opens. This time you will enter a name and open the text entry box of the next track with a single key command. Track 2 is renamed Drums. Track 3 is renamed Bass, and track 4 is ready to be renamed. Should you enter a name incorrectly, press Shift-Tab to open the text entry box of the previous track or channel strip.

Notice that track 2 has only a generic audio waveform icon. A shortcut menu displays icons organized in categories. A collection of various drum icons appears. The icon is now visible in the track header. The same icon is also assigned to the corresponding channel strip in the Mixer, as you will see in a moment.

When your creative juices are flowing, and you just want to make a quick adjustment to the sound of an instrument, wasting time looking for the correct track or channel strip can be frustrating. Or worse, you could become a victim of the classic mistake: turning knobs and faders but not hearing the sound reacting to your adjustments, until you realize you were adjusting the wrong instrument! Taking a minute to assign your tracks and channel strips descriptive names and appropriate icons can accelerate your workflow and avoid potentially costly mistakes.

You can see your new names at the bottom of the channel strips. You can resize the Mixer area to see more of the channel strips. A Resize pointer appears. The Mixer is now taller, and you can see more options at the top of the channel strips. You will learn about those options as needed. In that case, you can drag the vertical scrollbar to the right of the Mixer to scroll up and see all the options. With the Mixer open and occupying most of the main window, the workspace is much smaller.

Depending on your display resolution, navigating your song efficiently may prove challenging or nearly impossible. To remedy that, you will now adjust the locators in the Tracks area ruler and use Cycle mode to continuously repeat a part of the song that contains all the instruments.

If necessary, scroll or zoom out in the workspace so you can see your entire arrangement. Remember: to see all your regions, click the background of the workspace and press Z. Cycle mode is turned on, and a cycle area appears where you dragged. The cycle area spans the part of the song in which the two synths, the drums, and the bass play, so you can focus on adjusting the sounds of those instruments.

Playback starts at the beginning of the cycle area, and the playhead keeps repeating bars 9 through 13, where the two synths are playing. Synth 2 is significantly louder than Synth 1. Continue adjusting the Volume fader until the Gain display reads The Volume fader affects how much gain is applied to the audio signal flowing through the channel strip and, therefore, controls how loudly that instrument plays.

Synth 2 is now quieter and closer to the level of Synth 1. You will now adjust the Pan knobs on the two synth tracks to spread them farther apart in the stereo image. The synths sound too far apart now and seem disconnected from the rhythm section. The effect is even more pronounced if you listen to the song through headphones. The two synths come back closer to the center of the stereo field. Now they sound like they belong in the mix. Now you will apply effect plug-ins to process the audio signal flowing through the channel strip, thereby changing the tone of your instruments.

In this exercise, you will use a bass amp plug-in to add an edgier character to the bass, and a reverberation plug-in to bring warmth and dimension to the piano. When multiple formats are available in the menu, if you navigate to only the name of the plug-in, the most likely plug-in format is automatically used. The Power button dims to indicate that the plug-in is off. You can hear what the bass sounds like without the plug-in.

It sounds a bit muffled and vaguely distant. The attacks of the bass notes sound brighter and have a little grit to them, giving the bass character. The bass amp also made the bass a bit louder. In fact, it is a little too loud now. You will now add a plug-in to the Piano channel strip.

But first you need to move the cycle area, so you can hear the piano. The piano immediately occupies more space and has more body. And in your arrangement, whenever the piano plays, not many other instruments are playing, so this setting works great.

In the inspector, look at the peak level display on the Output channel strip. When a part of the song is too loud, the Output channel strip peak level display shows a positive value and turns red, indicating that the audio signal is distorted.

In this project, the highest peak in the song is under 0 dB FS, and no distortion is created. In a relatively short time, you have produced a one-minute instrumental song with six tracks, edited the regions in the workspace to build an arrangement, mixed the instruments in the Mixer, and added plug-ins to process their sounds. You now have a piece of music that would work fine, for example, during the credits of a radio or TV show or as a music bed for a TV ad.

Mixing Down to a Stereo File The last step is to mix down the music to a single stereo audio file so that anyone can play it on consumer-level audio software or hardware. In this exercise, you will bounce the project to a stereo audio file. By first selecting all your regions, you avoid the need to manually adjust the bounce start and end positions.

You can choose one or more Destination formats and adjust parameters for each format. You will bounce an MP3 format file that you can easily email or upload to a website. Below the Destination box, notice that the End position is correctly adjusted to the end of bar 23, when the last piano note finishes sustaining. A Bounce dialog opens. Bouncing creates a new stereo audio file on your hard drive. You will save the new MP3 file to your desktop.

A Bouncing progress bar opens, and toward the end of the operation, an additional progress bar indicates the preparation of the MP3 file. When the progress bars disappear, your MP3 file is ready on your desktop.

Logic Pro X is hidden, and you can see your desktop. To unhide an app, press Command-Tab to select it. Your file starts playing. You can now share that MP3 file with all your friends and family!

Lesson Review 1. Where is the inspector and what are its uses? Where is the Tracks area and what does it contain? Where is the control bar and what does it contain? Where is the workspace and what does it contain? When multiple panes are open, how do you make sure the desired pane reacts to key commands? Describe two ways to adjust a numerical value in Logic.

How do you copy a region? How do you resize a region? How do you loop a region? In the Mixer, where do you add effect plug-ins? In the help tag, what are the units of the four numeric values used to determine the length and position of a region? How many ticks are there in a sixteenth note?

How do you mix down your project to a stereo audio file? Answers 1. The inspector opens to the left of the Tracks area. Its contextual parameters adapt depending on which area has key focus, and what is selected.

The Tracks area is in the center of the main window. It contains the track headers to the left, the ruler at the top, and the workspace where you edit regions. The control bar is the row of buttons and displays at the top of your display. It contains transport buttons, information LCD displays, and mode buttons.

The workspace is in the Tracks area, to the right of the track headers and below the ruler, and it contains the regions used in your project. Drag the value vertically, or double-click it and enter a new value. Option-drag the region and always release the mouse button first, followed by the Option key. Place the mouse pointer over one of the two lower corners so it changes to a Resize pointer, and then drag horizontally. Select the region and press L, or select the Loop checkbox in the inspector.

In the Audio FX slots of the channel strips. Bars, beats, divisions, and ticks There are ticks in a sixteenth note.

Goals Choose digital audio settings Record single and multitrack audio Record additional takes Record in Cycle mode Re-record sections by punching in manually and automatically Adjust count-in, metronome, and other settings Delete unused audio files To build a song, you need to come up with the raw material you will later arrange and mix. You might start with an idea you have in your head, a part you rehearsed on an instrument, or a prerecorded sample or loop, or you may just start experimenting until inspiration strikes.

To sustain and develop that initial inspiration, you need to master the techniques that Logic offers to record, create, and edit the audio and MIDI regions that constitute the building blocks of your project.

In this lesson, you will configure Logic for audio recording and study activities you will typically perform when working with live musicians: recording a single instrument, recording additional takes of the same instrument, cycle recording, multitrack recording, punching on the fly, and automatic punching.

Setting Up Digital Audio Recording Before you record audio in Logic, you must connect a sound source such as a microphone, an electric guitar, or a synthesizer to your Mac. You then choose the desired recording settings and adjust the recording level of your sound source to avoid distortion.

In the following exercises, you will set up Logic to prepare for a music recording. The microphone transforms sound pressure waves into an analog electrical signal. The microphone preamp amplifies the analog electrical signal. A gain knob lets you set a proper recording level and avoid distortion.

The audio interface sends the digital data stream from the converter to the computer. Logic Pro saves the incoming data as an audio file displayed on the screen by a waveform representing the sound pressure waves. To convert the analog signal into a digital data stream, the digital converters sample the analog signal at a very fast time interval, or sample rate.

The sample rate identifies how many times per second the audio is digitally sampled. The bit depth identifies the number of data bits used to encode the value of each sample. The sample rate and bit depth settings determine the quality of a digital audio recording. Logic does not exert any influence over the quality of your recordings. Also, most modern Mac computers include a built-in audio interface. Many Mac notebook computers and iMac computers even have internal microphones.

Although those microphones are generally not intended to produce professional-quality recording, you can use the internal microphones to perform the exercises in this lesson in the absence of an external microphone.

By default, Logic records with a bit depth of 24 bits, which is fine for most uses. However, you may need to use different sample rates for different projects. Playing an audio file at the wrong sample rate will result in the wrong pitch and tempo, much like playing an audiotape or vinyl record at the wrong transport speed. The Project Settings window opens, and you can see your Audio settings.

By default, the sample rate is set to To determine which sample rate to choose, consider the sample rate of any prerecorded material you will use such as samples and the sample rate of the target delivery medium. Some producers who make intensive use of Traditionally, music is recorded at Choosing an Audio Interface In most situations, Logic automatically detects an audio interface when you connect it to your Mac and asks if you want to use that interface.

If you choose to use it, Logic selects that interface as both an input and output device in its audio preferences. The Audio preferences appear.

The Output Device is the device connected to your monitors or headphones. The Input Device is the device into which you plug your microphones or instruments. If you do not have an audio interface connected to your Mac, choose from the built-in output and input devices. If you choose a new output or input device, Logic automatically reinitializes the Core Audio engine when you close the window. Recording a Single Track In this example, you will record a single instrument.

The exercise describes recording an electric guitar plugged directly into an instrument input on your audio interface, but feel free to record your voice or any instrument you have. Preparing a Track for Recording To record audio, you first have to create a new audio track, select the correct input the input number on your audio interface where the guitar is plugged in , and enable that new track for recording. When adding tracks, the new tracks are inserted below the selected track.

To create a new track at the bottom of the Tracks area, you first need to select the bottom track. The New Tracks dialog appears. You can record-enable the track by selecting the Record Enable option below the Output menu; however, in some situations creating a recordenabled track may produce feedback.

You will later take precautions to avoid feedback and then record-enable the track from the track header. A new audio track set to Input 1 is created. Logic automatically assigns the new track to the next available channel. Since six audio tracks were created when you dragged Apple Loops in Lesson 1, the new track is assigned to the Audio 7 channel and is automatically named Audio 7.

More descriptive names will help you identify files in the future. The new track has a generic audio waveform icon. You can now hear your guitar and see its input level on the Guitar channel strip meter in the inspector.

This delay is called latency. You can monitor the audio routed to record-enabled tracks while Logic is stopped, playing, or recording. Otherwise, you will be monitoring the signal twice, resulting in a flangy or robotic sound. To emulate the character a guitar amp can give to a guitar sound, you can use Amp Designer, a guitar amplifier modeling plug-in.

Note that you are still recording a dry guitar sound. The effect plug-in processes the dry audio signal in real time during the recording and playback. Recording a dry signal means that you can continue fine-tuning the effect plug-ins or exchange them for other plug-ins after the recording is completed.

Amp Designer opens. Here, you can dial in a sound or choose a preset. You can now hear your guitar processed through Amp Designer. Adjusting the Recording Level Before recording, make sure you can monitor the sound through Logic, and then adjust the source audio level to avoid overloading the converters. On the channel strip, look at the peak level meter, and make sure it always stays below 0 dBFS decibels full scale, the unit used to measure levels in digital audio ; a level above 0 dBFS would indicate that you are clipping the input of your converter.

Keep in mind that you need to adjust the audio level before the converter input by using your microphone preamp gain knob. Allow some headroom, especially if you know that the artist might play or sing louder during the actual recording. Working with a low-level recording is better than clipping the input. Some interfaces also support other input settings, such as phantom power, hi-pass filter, and phase.

If the Gain knob is dimmed, it means that the feature is not supported by your audio interface. Make sure the peak sits comfortably below 0 dBFS: the wider the dynamic range of the source, the more headroom it needs to avoid clipping.

When your signal peaks below —2. When it peaks between —2. When it peaks above 0 dBFS, the peak level meter turns red to indicate the audio is clipping. Tuning the Instrument Making sure an instrument is in tune before recording is always a good idea.

The Tuner opens. Checking the Balance Now that the guitar is tuned, you can practice the performance and make sure that you can hear yourself and the other instruments comfortably. If the guitar is now too loud or too soft in comparison to the other tracks, in the inspector, drag the volume fader on the Guitar channel strip to adjust the monitoring level, or drag the volume slider in the Guitar track header.

Recording Audio You have set the desired sample rate, adjusted the recording and monitoring levels, inserted a plug-in to emulate the sound of a guitar amp, and tuned the instrument.

You are now ready to start recording. The playhead is positioned at bar If you need to adjust the position of the playhead, drag it left or right. The playhead and the LCD display in the control bar both turn red to indicate that Logic is recording.

The playhead jumps one bar earlier and gives you a four-beat count-in with an audible metronome click before the recording starts. You will learn how to alter both the metronome and the count-in settings later in this lesson. The new recording, Guitar 01, appears as a blue-shaded audio region. To the name of the track, Logic appends the number of the recording. The playhead jumps to the beginning of the selected region and playback starts.

If you are not happy with your new recording, you can delete it and start over. In the Finder, the audio file is moved from inside the project package to the Trash. The audio file stays in the Project Audio Browser and is still present inside the project package, allowing you to later drag it back to the workspace if necessary. This alert appears only when you try to delete a recording made since you most recently opened the project.

When deleting an audio region that was previously recorded, the behavior corresponding to the Keep option is automatically applied and an alert does not appear. You will keep your recording so you can experiment with recording additional takes in the next exercise.

Recording Additional Takes When recording a live performance, musicians can make mistakes. Rather than deleting the previous recording and repeatedly recording until you get a flawless performance, you can record several takes repeat performances of the same musical part and later choose the best take, or even combine the best parts of each take to create a comp composite take. To preserve multiple takes in Logic, you can record new performances over previous ones. The new recording in red appears to be recorded over the previous blue audio region.

Both the original recording Take 1 and the new recording Take 2 have been saved into a take folder. The take folder is on the Guitar track. It is currently open, so the two takes you recorded are displayed on subtracks below.

By default, the take folder plays the most recent take you recorded: Take 2, in this case. The previous take, Take 1, is dimmed and muted. The track is disarmed, and you can no longer hear the sound coming from Input 1 on your audio interface.

The take folder now contains three takes. It plays back the most recent one, Take 3, while the two previous ones, Take 1 and Take 2, are muted. Recording in Cycle mode allows you to repeatedly record a single section, thereby creating a new take for each pass of the cycle. When you stop recording, all the takes are saved inside a take folder. The Guitar track is automatically record-enabled.

The playhead jumps a bar ahead of the cycle for a one-measure count-in, and starts recording the first take. When it reaches bar 9, the end of the cycle area, it jumps back to bar 5 and starts recording a new take. Logic keeps looping the cycle area, recording new takes until you stop recording. Record two or three takes. All the takes recorded in Cycle mode are packed into a take folder. The Guitar track is automatically disabled for recording. To keep the last take of a cycle recording, make sure you stop the recording more than one bar after the beginning of the cycle area.

The take folder closes. Doing so allows you to record several instruments at once, placing each instrument on a separate track, so that you can later adjust their volumes and stereo positions or process them individually. You first create the desired number of tracks, making sure that each track is assigned to a different input number that corresponds to the input number on your audio interface where the microphone is plugged in.

In the following exercise, you will record two mono tracks at the same time, which you can do using the built-in Mac audio interface. To record more than two tracks at once, you need an audio interface with more than two inputs.

The exercise describes recording an acoustic guitar on Input 1 and a vocal microphone on Input 2. When creating multiple tracks, selecting Ascending automatically sets the inputs or outputs to ascending settings. In this case, you will create two tracks, so the first will be assigned to Input 1 and the second to Input 2. Make sure that you took precautions to avoid feedback, as explained at the beginning of this lesson; this time you will create record-enabled tracks.

Two new tracks are added at the bottom of the Tracks area and automatically assigned to the next available audio channels Audio 8 and Audio 9. Their inputs are set to Input 1 and Input 2, and both are record-enabled. The multitrack recording starts, and after a one-measure count-in, you see the red playhead appear to the left of the workspace, creating two red regions, one on each record-enabled track. You now have a new blue-shaded audio region on each track.

You can use the same procedure to simultaneously record as many tracks as needed. If the tracks already exist in the Tracks area, make sure you assign them the correct inputs, record-enable them, and start recording.

Punching In and Out When you want to correct a specific section of a recording—usually to fix a performance mistake—you can restart playback before the mistake, punch in to engage recording just before the section you wish to fix, and then punch out to stop recording immediately after the section while playback continues.

This technique allows you to fix smaller mistakes in a recording while still listening to the continuity of the performance. At any time, you can open the take folder and select the original recording. There are two punching methods: on the fly and automatic.

Punching on the fly allows you to press a key to punch in and out while Logic plays, whereas automatic punching requires you to identify the autopunch area in the ruler before recording. Punching on the fly is fast but usually requires an engineer to perform the punch-in and punch-out while the musician is performing. Automatic punching is ideal for the musician-producer who is working alone. Assigning Key Commands To punch on the fly, you will use the Record Toggle command, which is unassigned by default.

Click the disclosure triangle next to Global Commands. The Key Commands window lists all available Logic commands and their keyboard shortcuts, if any. When looking for a specific functionality in Logic Pro X, open the Key Commands window and try to locate the function using the search field.

A command likely exists for that functionality that may or may not be assigned. When Learn by Key Label is selected, you can press a key, or a key plus a combination of modifiers Command, Control, Shift, Option , to create a keyboard command for the selected function. An alert indicates that the R key is already assigned to the Record command.

You could click Replace to assign R to Record Toggle, but then Record would no longer be assigned to a keyboard shortcut. Control-J is now listed in the Key column next to Record Toggle, indicating that the command was successfully assigned. Punching on the Fly You will now use the Record Toggle key command you assigned in the previous exercise to punch on the Vocals track the bottom track in your Tracks area.

When punching on the fly, you may first want to play the performance to determine which section needs to be re-recorded, and to be ready to punch in and out at the desired locations. Position your fingers on the keyboard to be ready to press your Record Toggle key command when you reach the point where you want to punch in. The playhead continues moving, but Logic is now recording a new take on top of the previous recording.

Keep your fingers in position to be ready to punch out. The recording stops while the playhead continues playing the project. On the Vocals track, a take folder was created. It contains your original recording Take 1 and the new take Take 2. A comp is automatically created Comp A that combines the original recording up to the punch-in point, the new take between the punch-in and punch-out points, and the original recording after the punch-out point.

Fades are automatically applied at the punch-in and punch-out points. You will learn more about fades in Lesson 3. The take folder disappears, and you once again see the Vocals 01 region on the Vocals track. Punching on the fly is a great technique that allows the musician to focus on his performance while the engineer takes care of punching in and out at the right times. On the other hand, if you worked alone through this exercise and tried to punch in and punch out while playing your instrument or singing, you realize how challenging it can be.

When working alone, punching automatically is recommended. Punching Automatically To prepare for automatic punching, you enable the Autopunch mode and set the autopunch area.

Setting the punch-in and punch-out points in advance allows you to focus entirely on your performance during recording. First, you will customize the control bar to add the Autopunch button. The ruler becomes taller to accommodate for the red autopunch area. The autopunch area defines the section to be re-recorded. You can define the autopunch area with more precision when you can clearly see where the mistakes are on the audio waveform.

Logic zooms in, and the selected region fills the workspace. Here we have a vocal recording in which the two words around bar 3 need to be re-recorded. Listen while watching the playhead move over the waveform to determine which part of the waveform corresponds to the words you need to replace.

You can drag the edges of the autopunch area to resize it, or drag the entire area to move it. Red vertical guidelines help you align the punch-in and punch-out points with the waveform. Playback starts. When the playhead reaches the punch-in point the left edge of the autopunch area , the Record button turns solid red and Logic starts recording a new take. When the playhead reaches the punch-out point the right edge of the autopunch area , the recording stops but the playback continues.

A take folder, Vocals: Comp A, is created on the track. Logic zooms out so you can see the entire take folder filling the workspace. Just as when you punched on the fly in the previous exercise, a comp is automatically created that plays the original recording up to the punch-in point, inserts the new take between the punch-in and punch-out points, and continues with the original recording after the punch-out point.

When a marquee selection is present, starting a recording automatically turns on the Autopunch mode, and the autopunch area matches the marquee selection. Recording Without a Metronome Musicians often use a tempo reference when recording. In most modern music genres, when live drums are used, drummers record their performance while listening to a metronome or a click track.

When electronic drums are used, they are often recorded or programmed first, and then quantized to a grid so that they follow a constant tempo. The other musicians later record their parts while listening to this drum track.

Still, some musicians prefer to play to their own beat and record their instrumental tracks without following a metronome, click track, or drum track.

When recording audio in Logic, you can set up Smart Tempo to analyze a recording and automatically create a tempo map that follows the performance so that the notes end up on the correct bars and beats. Subsequent recording or MIDI programming can then follow that tempo map, ensuring that all tracks play in sync.

An empty project template opens, and the New Tracks dialog opens. To make Logic analyze the audio recording and create a corresponding tempo map, you should set the Project Tempo mode to Adapt. The orange color indicates that those parameters will be affected by a new recording. Get ready to record.

Because the Project Tempo mode is set to Adapt, the metronome does not automatically play unlike the Project Tempo mode set to Keep mode. You no longer need it! Try playing something that has an obvious rhythmic quality to it, such as a staccato rhythm part in which you can clearly distinguish the individual chords or notes.

During the recording, Logic displays red vertical lines over the recording when it detects beats. An alert offers to open the File Tempo Editor so you can preview the recording and adjust the positions of the beat markers that Logic created while analyzing the file.

In the Global Tempo track, you can see multiple tempo changes. In that case, perform this exercise again, making sure you can hear a strong rhythmic reference in your recording. For example, try tapping a very basic beat with your fingers in front of the microphone. You have recorded a rubato performance without listening to a timing reference.

Logic automatically detected your tempo changes and applied them to the project tempo. Some settings do not affect the quality of the audio recording but can alter the behavior of your project during recording or change the audio file format used for recordings. The next few exercises will show you how those settings affect the audio recording process and explain how to modify them. Setting the Count-In The count-in is the time you have to prepare yourself and get in the groove before the actual recording begins.

The take folder is deleted. Until now, every time you pressed Record, the playhead jumped to the beginning of the previous measure so you could have a four-beat count-in. However, sometimes you may want to start recording without a count-in. The playhead starts from its current position, and Logic starts recording right away.

At other times, you may need a longer count-in, or you may want Logic to count in for a specific number of beats. The audio region is removed from the workspace, but the audio file is still in the project folder.

The playhead jumps two bars ahead to bar 3, and playback starts. When the playhead reaches bar 5, Logic starts recording. Setting the Metronome By default, the metronome is turned off during playback and automatically plays during recording. In this exercise, you will change the default behaviors using the Metronome button and later go into the Metronome settings to adjust its sounds.

The metronome is on. The metronome is off. The metronome is back on. You now have inverted the default behavior: the metronome is on during playback and is automatically turned off during recording. The Metronome Settings window opens. There are settings for two metronomes: Audio Click also known as Klopfgeist, which is German for knocking ghost , which you are using, and MIDI Click, which is now off.

Under the name of each metronome, you can adjust the pitch and velocity of the notes playing on each bar and beat. The metronome sounds a little low compared to the drum loop on track 1. In fact, you can hear it only when no drum hit occurs on that beat. At the bottom of the Metronome Settings window, you can drag a couple of sliders to adjust the sound of the metronome.

The metronome sound changes, and you can start hearing a pitch. Adjust the knob to balance the shift and to control the brightness of any atonal, inharmonic elements that may be introduced to the sound. This can lead to chaotic effects. Partial knob: Set the amount that noise affects low or high partials by specifying the minimum partial that is altered by the effect. This can create a subtle widening of the sound, with less obvious left to right movement in the lowest partials.

At zero, all partials are in- phase. Higher values lead to a finer, more subtle and complex effect. The range is from 16 Hz to 20 kHz. Crossover frequencies are centered at Hz, Hz, and Hz, with a one octave transition between bands. Partials are panned left to right in a regular pattern, with every second partial position inverted.

Modulating the partial number can create rhythmic melodic effects. Shorter release times and slower modulation of the partial number can create strumming of partials.

For example, a value of 10 applies a sine wave shape over partials , , , and so on. Modulate this with a ramp up LFO for smooth sound changes. Logic Pro Alchemy spectral element controls Source components are shown only in advanced view. The parameters in this section are shown when the Spectral button is active in a source subpage. Two Logic Pro Alchemy spectral element effects units are available in the lower half of the spectral parameters shown in the source subpage.

Note: You must first perform a sample import with a spectral analysis or draw in the Spectral edit window before you can use any of the spectral engine parameters. In Alchemy, the audible spectrum of a signal is split into a large number of spectral bins.

Energy distribution across these bins is analyzed and the sound is recreated by filling each spectral bin with the required amount of signal, using either sine waves or filtered noise. The results are then summed. Use Noise to fill spectral bins with filtered noise.

The spectral bins are filled with sine waves, which is generally the best choice to recreate the entire original signal. Noise mode can be useful for transforming normal speech into whispering, for example.

The spectral engine is used only to recreate noisier aspects of the sound because this is not a strength of additive resynthesis. In this case, the mode is set to Noise. When multiple elements are used in a source, use this control to set the relative level of the spectral component. All signals above this frequency are allowed to pass.

Signals below the frequency are cut. All signals below this frequency are allowed to pass. Signals above the frequency are cut. The Low Cut and High Cut parameters work in conjunction with each other to act as a bandpass filter, where signals that fall within the two cutoff ranges are allowed to pass. Alchemy spectral element effects provide a number of creative options in the spectral synthesis engine. Two effects units are available in the lower half of the spectral parameters shown in the source subpage.

See Logic Pro Alchemy spectral element controls for information on other spectral element parameters. See spectral effect descriptions below. This parameter is common to all spectral effect types. The parameter name and function vary with each effect type. Note that this effect requires a small amount of calculation time to collect and release a group of frequencies.

As a result, there may be a gap between playing a note and hearing the effect. Tip: Try single note samples with a strong initial attack, such as a piano, and set Mix to a value that introduces the effect as part of the tail of the sound. When centered 0 , the original frequency balance is used. Blur Blur produces a frequency blurring effect.

Tip: Try a melodic loop with pitch variations to best hear the impact of this effect. For example, when used on a loop, higher settings produce a simplified sound with more frequent gaps in the effect output.

Cloud Cloud produces what might best be described as a cloud of frequency grains, resulting in a textured chorus effect. Depending on your settings and source material, this can either produce a choppy sound or a smoother one.

Tip: Drum loops are an ideal starting point when learning uses for this effect. This reduces detail and enhances prominent frequencies in the source. Glide Glide creates adjustable, repeating upward filter sweeps that are based on the source content. Note that this effect requires a small amount of calculation time before the results of your adjustments are heard.

Tip: Sources with wide frequency ranges produce a more pronounced filter sweep sound, whereas sources with limited frequencies can result in unique melodic drones as narrow filters sweep across their ranges.

Freq Shift Freq uency Shift moves the spectral bins higher or lower in the spectrum, reducing the level of or entirely dropping some frequencies while emphasizing others. This is a powerful sound design tool that can dramatically alter the sound and can introduce inharmonic overtones. Tip: Try single note samples with a strong initial attack, such as a piano, and blend the mix level so that the effect comes in as part of the tail of the sound.

Start with small adjustments because this parameter has a wide range. Higher frequencies are attenuated. Tip: This effect is highly dependent on the available frequency range in the imported sample. For example, the Alpha and Beta knobs are useful across the entire range with drum loops, whereas the most useful Alpha and Beta ranges are small positive or negative deviations from the center position when used with spoken vocals.

A setting of 1 centered is closest to the source sound. Metallize Metallize produces classic comb filter style effects. Tip: Experiment with drum loops to clearly hear the impact of the controls. Higher settings emphasize harmonics, creating metallic resonances. Shimmer Shimmer sweeps the frequencies to varying degrees and speeds, imparting either slow frequency shifts or fast shimmering sounds.

Tip: Try pure organ samples to clearly see the results of the effect in the real-time spectrogram display, particularly at moderate rate settings. Tip: Import a bell sample, and start with very low settings to see and hear the impact of controls on the sound.

Note that bins are numbered and selected sequentially. Smear Smear averages between blocks of frequencies to create a smoother, more consistent sound. It delivers different results to the Blur effect. Tip: Try melodic loops that have pitch variations to showcase this effect. Higher settings have less sonic variation, so make small changes.

This natural variation in the sound provides a more organic cloud-like effect. Disable to lock the phases of the source, resulting in a tight, metallic sound.

Logic Pro Alchemy pitch correction controls Source components are shown only in advanced view. The parameters in this section are shown when the Pitch button is active in an additive or spectral source subpage. Higher values result in stronger correction. This is shown as a percentage. Logic Pro Alchemy formant filter controls Source components are shown only in advanced view.

The parameters in this section are shown when the Formant button is active in an additive or spectral source subpage. When audio is imported into the additive or spectral engines with the Formant option enabled, the signal is analyzed and resonances in the original signal are extracted and converted into a formant filter shape.

The formant filter scales the amplitude of additive partials or spectral bins over time to recreate the characteristic resonances of the instrument, rather than processing the audio signal like a conventional filter. This more detailed analysis attempts to determine the resonant frequencies of the source audio data. Higher values can make sounds seem brighter or thinner. Lower values can create a darker, thicker character.

Set to lower values to reduce key tracking which may make some sounds playable over a wider keyboard range. The Size knob works in conjunction with the Center parameter. Resonances below the center frequency are shifted upward as the Size knob value is increased.

A corresponding downward shift occurs to resonances above the center frequency. High values smooth and slow down formant changes. Low values exaggerate and speed up changes. Formant filter synthesized parameters The synthesized controls work with any additive or spectral material and do not require the formants to be analyzed on import.

Use these parameters to impose new resonant characteristics on the original signal. Size works in conjunction with the Center knob. Resonances below the center frequency are shifted upward as the Size value is increased. The displayed value indicates position. Whole numbers indicate a particular filter unit, and fractional values indicate a position between filters. Assign this type to use one of the four filter units as a bypass. Adjust the Select knob to quickly disable synthesized formant processing.

The Size knob can be used to stretch the pattern of cuts and boosts up or down the frequency spectrum, or both, depending on the setting of the Center knob. The negative filter name is used because it recreates the effect of a phase- inverted delayed signal that boosts only odd harmonics, resulting in a hollow sound. This filter has a brighter sound than the negative comb filter. Experiment with each comb to determine the best choice for your sound.

The parallel filters are multipole designs. Signals above or below the set center frequency are attenuated. The Shift knob sets the cutoff frequency. The Size knob changes the filter slope. The frequency band can be moved up or down the frequency spectrum with the Shift knob.

The Size knob sets the width of the band notch. The Size knob sets the width of the band. Classic vowel sounds are warmer, and are similar to synthesizer vowel sound filtering. Smooth variants are more natural-sounding vowel shapes with a gentler filter slope.

Each Bright, Classic, and Smooth vowel filter is more of a unique variation on that general sound, with not only brightness differences, but also overall character differences. Additionally, any vowel filter can be independently modulated, alone or in conjunction with Select knob morphing between filters even from mismatched sets.

Use these facilities to dramatically expand your filtering options. Each variation of this complex filter shape has prominent peaks at different frequencies.

It is, generally speaking, an open-sounding filter. This filter shape has gentler midrange and upper midrange peaks with a dominant low-mid resonance.

The result is a rounder sound with less brightness and presence than the vowel types above. This filter shape has gentler midrange and upper midrange peaks with a prominent low-mid resonance. Modify formants in a resynthesized additive guitar sound 1.

Select source A, then click the source select field and choose Import Audio from the pop-up menu. Navigate to the Guitars subfolder in the Factory samples folder, and choose a single guitar sample. When loading is complete, click the Formant button to the right side of the source A window. Note that the upper Analyzed section is turned on. Adjust the Shift knob to move resonances up or down in frequency and to change the timbre.

Small amounts of Shift variation work well for subtle changes: try a few semitones in either direction. Play some very low notes, then some very high notes. Gradually turn down the KTrack knob to reduce key tracking for the formant filter, and note the difference when you replay the high and low notes.

Adjust the Size knob value to change the apparent size of the guitar body. Also adjust the Center knob value, and note the effect it has on the tone of the resulting larger or smaller guitar body. Modify formants in a resynthesized spectral drum loop 1. Navigate to the Loops subfolder in the Factory samples folder, and choose a drum loop. When loading is complete, click the Formant button to the right of the source A window. Adjust the Size knob value to make the drums seem bigger or smaller.

Adjust the Smooth knob value to alter the rate of change for the formant filter. Higher values smear the timbre of one drum into the next. Lower values exaggerate changes and create an unusual distortion near the bottom of the knob range. Create a talking additive sound with synthesized vowel formants 1. Select source A, then turn off the oscillator in the VA section to the right. Click the Additive button, and turn on the additive section. You will hear an additive sawtooth sound if you play some notes.

As an option, increase the Num Partials value. This helps to prevent the sound becoming dull if played in lower registers. Click the Formant button, and turn on the lower Synthesized section.

Increase the Select knob value, and play a few notes. Adjust the Shift knob, the Size knob, and the Center knob, to explore the different timbres available. Switch the order of vowels in the four pop-up menus, and also load different filter types such as Comb. The parameters in this section are shown when the Granular button is active in a source subpage.

The Granular section is available only when you import an audio sample using either granular or sampler mode. Note: The sampler and granular engines are mutually exclusive: you can use one or the other within a single source, but not both together. You can, however, enable further sources if both engines are required simultaneously. Granular synthesis represents continuous sound as a stream of grains, or tiny pieces of sound.

Alchemy generates grains by extracting 2- to millisecond pieces from an audio file. The amplitude of each grain is shaped, along with any pitch and pan modifications, before the grain is sent to the output stream.

Grains can be reordered, time stretched, and pitch shifted. This provides an inexhaustible supply of potential raw material to use as the basis of your sounds. Granular element parameters In addition to the following controls, granular playback is affected by loop modes and by the settings and modulations of the Position and Speed knobs in each source subpage.

Modulations of the granular element update with each new grain. For an example of the impact this has, modulating the source Coarse Tune parameter with an LFO causes the stream of grains to rise and fall in pitch, but does not create pitch sweeps within each grain.

If a large Size value is used in conjunction with a low Density value, modulations of source parameters such as pitch may sound stepped, rather than smooth. The Size and Density parameters interact with each other. When the Density value is 1, a single grain is sent to the output stream. As soon as one grain finishes, the next one is sent. A Size value of msec sends a new grain every msec. Increasing Density to 2 adds a second grain that is sent in between those of the first, resulting in a new grain every 50 msec, assuming a Size value of msec.

The first and second grains overlap each other. Higher Density values inject additional new grains into the output stream. These new grains occur more frequently and overlap more heavily. Setting Size to around msec and Density to around 5 grains is often suitable for smooth pad sounds with no sharp transients.

Setting Size between 40 and 80 msec and Density to around 2 grains is useful for drums and other sounds featuring sharp transients. Small Size values tend to produce a buzz that masks the original pitch of the sample.

Large Size values tend to break up the sound. You can counteract both tendencies by increasing the Density. Note: Also important to the Size and Density parameters is the shape chosen in the Grain Shape pop-up menu. This can have a significant or subtle impact on sonic artifacts that may be introduced in the stream of grains. The source Stereo button must be on for RPan to have an effect.

Taps retrigger the attack phase of the source. Note: Taps that fall within a looped area are retriggered on each loop cycle. Values are shown as a percentage of the overall sound duration. Set to zero to trigger taps in quick succession at the sound end point. The source Stereo button must be on for Stereo Offset to have an effect.

At a basic level, this applies a small fade-in and fade-out to each grain, but some shapes may have a more significant impact, depending on the current Size and Density values and the source material. You can also step through the available grain shapes with the Previous and Next buttons the arrows.

This function is primarily intended to reduce or remove glitches, clicks, and crackles in the playback of a stream of grains, but it can introduce buzzy gaps between grains and can affect the tonality of grains. There are no fixed rules when it comes to the choice of grain shape, given the infinite variety of source audio material. Therefore, you may want to experiment to achieve the required results. The parameters in this section are shown when the Sampler button is active in a source subpage.

The sampler section is available only when you import an audio sample using either granular or sampler mode. The sampler section allows audio files, known as samples, to be played directly. Samples played at a higher pitch than the original play back at a faster speed. Samples played at a lower pitch than the original play back at a slower speed.

The sample waveform is displayed in the center. A progress bar indicates the current playback position for the most recently triggered note. When multiple elements are used in a source, use this control to set the relative level of the sampled component.

The parameters in this section are shown when the VA Virtual Analog button is active in a source subpage. When you click the Name bar File button, and choose Initialize Preset from the pop-up menu to initialize Alchemy to default settings, the VA element is automatically enabled. Basic saw, sine, square, and triangle and many specialized waveforms are provided. You can also step through the available waveforms with the Previous and Next buttons the arrows. When multiple elements are used in a source, use this control to set the relative level of the oscillator component.

When a square wave is active, Symmetry acts as a pulsewidth control. These have different spectral characteristics that can be further refined with filters. You can step through the available waveforms with the Previous and Next buttons the arrows. When multiple elements are used in a source, use this control to set the relative level of the noise component.

All frequencies above this value are allowed to pass. All frequencies below are attenuated. All frequencies below this value are allowed to pass. All frequencies above are attenuated. The Low Cut and High Cut parameters work in conjunction with each other to act as a bandpass filter, where the noise signal that falls within the two cutoff ranges is allowed to pass.

Logic Pro Alchemy source modulations Source components are shown only in advanced view. Parameters that have a modulation assignment are indicated by an orange arc around the control.

Note: Parameters that are morphed and have a modulation assignment show both an orange and green arc around the control. This section focuses on Position, which is a modulation target. The principles discussed apply equally to other source parameter targets.

Position determines the playback position of audio data. When modulated, the playback path through the audio data is controlled by the selected modulation source. In sampler mode, the note-on modulation value determines the initial offset for the play position within the audio data. Beginning at that position, the rest of the sound plays in a normal manner, although looped as if the Loop mode is set to All.

In additive, spectral, or granular mode, Position can be continuously modulated forward or backward at any rate including zero. Create tempo-synced loops by modulating position Synchronized playback of looped audio with the Logic Pro X tempo is easy to achieve by modulating the Position parameter. This technique is possible with any synthesis method that permits continuous modulation of Position. This example uses the granular engine, but the same technique can be applied to the additive and spectral engines.

When Position is modulated and Speed has a value greater than zero, the playback path is determined by a combination of modulation value whenever this value changes and the normal path at a rate determined by Speed whenever the modulation value is static.

In source A, import a rhythmic or melodic sample that loops evenly. You will hear that playback is frozen at the very beginning of the sample. Do one of the following:. Note the orange arc that appears around the Position knob.

This indicates that the parameter has a modulation assignment. Also in the LFO, turn off the Bipolar button. This routing increases Position smoothly so that the entire sample plays back from beginning to end, then jumps immediately back to the beginning and continues to loop.

Finally, adjust the Logic Pro X tempo as you play additional notes to confirm that the loop is properly synchronized. Logic Pro Alchemy morph controls Source components are shown only in advanced view. Click the Advanced button to switch to advanced view, then click the Morph button to view and use the morph controls.

The morph controls determine how the four Alchemy sources interact. There are two basic types of interaction. This is equivalent to turning the Amp knobs in each source to attain the desired mix. If you crossfade from a source with a high Coarse Tune setting to a source with a low Coarse Tune setting, the high source fades out as the low source fades in.

In the middle of the crossfade you hear both sources. If you morph from a source with a high Coarse Tune setting to a source with a low Coarse Tune setting, you hear a single sound during the morph. The sound tuning falls smoothly from the high value to the low one. Morphing provides more scope than simple crossfades between sources.

It also allows cross-synthesis, where you can combine different aspects of different sound elements. For example, you could apply the formants or other characteristics of an additive source to the spectral element of another source.

See the tutorials found in Logic Pro Alchemy elemental morphs overview. Morphed parameters are indicated by a green arc around the control. Parameters that are morphed and have a modulation assignment show both an orange and green arc around the control. Parameter settings are shared across all morphed sources, which means that changing a parameter in one source results in the corresponding parameter being changed for all morphed sources. Note: Parameters that do not directly participate in the morph, including most buttons and pop-up menus, are indicated with a lock icon displayed at the top left of the control the lock icons are shown only in source subpages.

Where there is a parameter pairing of an On button and a pop-up menu, only the button shows the lock icon. Neither parameter participates in the morph. Regions of each source encompassed by corresponding warp markers are time- aligned in the morph. See Logic Pro Alchemy zone waveform editor. Also controls VA morph position if the VA element is active. Also controls sampler morph position if the sampler element is active.

Also controls morphing of the source filter knobs. These controls morph the timing of the sound. In cases where source A has a short attack and source B has a long attack, for example, the length of the attack varies as you change the X knob. Turn off for the best morphing quality. As an example, Auto Align corrects the timing of words of four spoken voice samples saying the same phrase in each of the four morphed sources.

Auto Align is automatically turned off when you set warp markers manually. Regions of each source encompassed by corresponding warp markers are time-aligned in the morph. See Logic Pro Alchemy elemental morphs overview. Use Elements to view and edit the X values of five parameters. Morphs affect only the chosen group of sources. This also controls the sampler morphing position if the sampler element is active.

Turn off for higher morphing quality. For example, Auto Align corrects the timing of words of four spoken voice samples saying the same phrase in each of the four morphed sources. Drag the point to change the X or Y value, or both. Drag each point to change the corresponding X and Y values. Edit buttons are shown on all source subpages. Shown at the top right of all edit windows. By default, the Main edit window is shown. Further Additive and Spectral edit windows can be opened by clicking the buttons at the top of the window.

These windows provide additional parameters that let you precisely edit and sculpt your sounds. The Main edit window is divided into three areas that interact with each other. You can edit parameters graphically in the keymap or waveform editor or can use corresponding fields and other parameters in the inspector.

This area interacts with the zone parameters in the inspector. See Logic Pro Alchemy keymap editor. The source edit window is opened by clicking the Edit button on any source subpage. Click the close window icon X to close the source edit window. The source inspector is divided into three main parameter groupings: global and source parameters, group parameters, and zone parameters.

Click the X icon at the top right of the active window to close it. You can also click the Previous and Next buttons the arrows to step through available waveform data. All other sources are muted. Logic Pro Alchemy inspector group controls Source components are shown only in advanced view. Click the close window icon X at the top right to close the window. The new group name is added below existing group names in the Group list shown under the Group pop-up menu.

A sequentially assigned number is appended to the new group name. Control-click a group name to choose the Delete command. Attack triggers group zones when note-on messages are received. Release triggers group zones for note-off messages. This mode is useful for instruments with a distinctive end-of-note sound such as a key click or hammer thump. Such sounds can be included as a separate group with release triggering enabled. You can also use this feature creatively to add abstract reverb tails or to create a pad sound that changes dramatically during the release stage.

Apply a fade in time value ranging from 0 to for note-off events when the release trigger mode is active. This parameter is primarily intended for use in conjunction with release triggering, to create a crossfade between the main body of the note and the release sample.

A common use of this feature is to create a group containing an open and a closed hi-hat sample. If you set group polyphony to one, either the closed or open hi-hat sample can play, but not both at the same time.

You can create and combine multiple rules using boolean logic. The normal state for any newly created group is a single rule set to Always, unless that group was defined as a Round Robin group in the Import browser Dropzone. Click the field to choose a rule. This adds a new rule pop-up menu below the first and displays a Logic pop-up menu to the right. Choose Delete from the pop-up menu to remove a rule. At least two round robin groups must exist for this parameter to have an effect.

Each group is assigned a different value. If two groups are assigned to the same value, both zones are triggered simultaneously. Each note-on sequentially triggers a round robin group from lowest to highest. Once the highest group number is triggered, the sequence starts again from the lowest group number. Drag vertically in the field or use the arrows to set a value. No Order pop-up menu is shown. You can also assign keyswitching to a MIDI note or range of notes which prevents the group from triggering until one of these notes is played.

Two pop-up menus are displayed, where you can choose keyswitch conditions. For example, set the first field to Snap2 and the second field to Snap4, which results in the group being triggered only when the Transform pad is at position 2, 3, or 4. Assign multiple groups to different ranges to switch between up to eight different groups.

See Logic Pro Alchemy Transform pad. This knob is visible only when the Keysw options are chosen in these menus. For example, set the first field to Keysw1 and the second to Keysw5, which results in the group being triggered when the Keyswitch knob is set to a value that falls within this range.

Up to 10 Keyswitch knob positions are available, enabling you to switch between groups with the knob. Because the Keyswitch knob is available as a modulation target, this lets you create complex automated group switches.

Play a note in this range to switch to a group, which remains active until another group is chosen. Three pop-up menus are displayed where you can choose the controller type and set controller values.

You can set other groups with the same type but with a different control range to switch between groups with a single controller. Because the Control 1 knob used in the example is available as a modulation target, this lets you create complex automated group switches. Drag vertically in the fields or use the arrows to set a value.

The different logic conditions result in different outcomes. Crossfade to a different group of samples on note-off 1. Select a sample or multiple samples representing the main sustain portion of your sound, and import using any of the available import modes. Alchemy analyzes each sample to determine the root pitch if not defined in the filename , set the root key, key range, and velocity range for each sample zone such that they span the entire keyboard and the entire dynamic range, and add all zones to a group named Group 1.

Select a sample or multiple samples representing the release portion of your sound, and import the import mode is automatically set to match the existing group. Alchemy again analyzes each sample and adds all zones to a group named Group 2. Double-click Group 2, then click the Trig field and change it to Release. Zones in Group 2 will now trigger when you release each key, playing over zones in Group 1 which continue to sound until AHDSR1 reaches the end of the release stage.

Double-click Group 1 in the list, then click the Fade field and change it to a value other than 0. Zones in Group 1 will now fade out when the note is released, allowing Group 2 to be heard during the release stage of the sound.

Higher Fade values result in slower fades. As an option, double-click Group 2 in the list, then click the Fade field and change it to a value other than 0. Zones in Group 2 will now fade in when the note is released, creating a crossfade between Groups 1 and 2 at note-off. Higher values result in slower fades. Fading in the release group may be unnecessary if your release samples already have a natural fade in at the start, however, or undesirable if a percussive transient is required at note-off.

Try to set Fade values for Group 1 and 2 to an identical small value to create a sudden but click-free crossfade at the end of each note. Create random round robin variations 1. Select a sample or multiple samples representing the second of your round robin variations, and import the import mode is automatically set to match the existing group.

Alchemy will again analyze each sample and add all zones to a group named Group 2. Any notes you play will now randomly trigger either group 1 or group 2, but not both together. Note that if you play a chord, each individual note is randomly assigned to one of those groups.

Repeat steps 7 to 9 as needed to configure a group for each further variation you require. Assign the source Keysw knob to switch between groups 1. Click the Rule field, and change it from Always to Keyswitch. Click the first range field, and change it to Keysw1. The second range field also changes to the same value. As an option, you can click the second range field and increase the value to specify a range of values that will trigger this group, instead of just a single value.

Select a sample or multiple samples representing the second of your variations, and import the import mode is automatically set to match the existing group. Click the Rule field below Group 2, and change it from Always to Keyswitch. Click the first range field, and change it to the first unused Keysw value.

If the second range field for Group 1 is set to Keysw3, choose Keysw4. As an option, you can click the second range field and increase the value to specify a range of values that will trigger Group 2, instead of just a single value.

Click the X symbol at the top right to close the source edit window. A new Keysw knob is visible in the source pane, to the left of the Keyscale field. Rotate the Keysw knob to switch between the groups you created.

Control-click this knob to add modulation routings from the shortcut menu. Create round robin variations for just one Transform pad position 1. It is automatically assigned the number 1 in the sequence, and a second rule set to Always is added below.

Leave the first range field for rule 2 set to Snap1, and change the second range field to Snap7. It is automatically assigned the number 2 in the sequence, and a second rule set to Always is added below. Set the first Range field for rule 2 to Snap8. The second field is automatically set to the same value. Played notes only trigger zones in Group 1 unless the Transform pad is at position 8, in which case Groups 1 and 2 play alternately, in a round robin fashion. Repeat steps 10 to 14 as needed to configure a group for each further variation you require.

Newly imported samples are added to the current configuration. Each new sample results in a new zone. Click to open a pop-up menu where you can select other source zones. Note: The keymap editor lets you select multiple zones simultaneously. In this case the zone name field shows Multiple to indicate a multi-zone selection. Any parameter changes are applied to all selected zones. The chosen note triggers playback of the sound at its original pitch. A pitched sample should ideally be mapped to a matching root key.

If the root note is defined as part of the filename, the Key parameter is set accordingly when the file is imported. If the root note is not in the filename, samples are analyzed on import to calculate their original pitch and a suitable root key setting. The button is automatically turned off once the root key has been learned. Note: The loop start and loop end points can be edited in the source main edit page. In VA mode, a raw oscillator noise source is used rather than loopable data, so VA synthesis elements are not affected by the Loop mode setting.

This parameter is also useful for level- matching multiple selected zones. Alternatively, drag the left edge of the highlighted zone in the keymap editor. Alternatively, drag the right edge of the highlighted zone in the keymap editor.

Alternatively, drag the lower edge of the highlighted zone in the keymap editor. Alternatively, drag the upper edge of the highlighted zone in the keymap editor. No more than two zones can be triggered simultaneously within one group, which means that crossfades can be set for zones with adjacent key ranges or for zones with adjacent velocity ranges, but not for both at the same time.

This typically results in a crossfade that sounds quieter at the halfway point. Linear mode can be useful when crossfading two highly similar sounds that may reinforce one another at the halfway point of an equal-power crossfade.

When crossfading two sounds with a similar loudness, Power mode results in a smooth fade with the same apparent loudness at the halfway point. If Lo Vel is set to 20 and Bottom is set to 15, the zone fades in gradually for notes with velocities between 20 and Velocity values below 20 do not trigger the zone. If Hi Vel is set to 90 and Top is set to 30, the zone fades out gradually for notes with velocities between 60 and Velocity values above 90 do not trigger the zone.

Note: Zone fades and overlapping zones are not compatible with morphing sources. When morphing is enabled, only one zone is triggered at a time from each morphing source the first zone in the list , and zone fades are disabled. Logic Pro Alchemy keymap editor Source components are shown only in advanced view. The keymap editor displays all sample zones in the currently selected group, with each zone represented as a rectangle.

The size and location of the rectangle indicates the key and velocity range for the associated zone. The selected zone in the inspector is indicated by a white outline in the keymap editor. See Logic Pro Alchemy inspector zone controls. Drag either boundary to set the Lo Key and Hi Key values. Drag either the top or bottom edge to set the Lo Vel and Hi Vel values.

Horizontally drag the zoom controls at either end of the scroll bar to resize the contents of the visible display area. The import mode used by the previous sample is retained, and the import mode buttons are dimmed. Select and edit the values of one or more zones 1. In Logic Pro X, select the zone by doing one of the following:. Hold down Shift, then click multiple zones in the keymap editor to select them. All selected zones are highlighted with a white border, and Multiple is shown in the inspector zone name field.

Drag the left, right, top, or bottom edge of the zone. When multiple zones are selected, drag the edge of one selected zone to apply the same relative change to all other selected zones.

Delete one or more zones 1. The zone or zones are deleted. All associated sample, additive, or spectral data is removed from the source. The sample is previewed, inclusive of loop settings but ignoring zone parameters such as Tune, Volume, and Panning. Audio is sent directly to the Alchemy outputs, bypassing any filters or effects that are enabled in other sections. Create a multisample with key splits and crossfades for adjacent zones 1.

Click the Advanced button, then click the source A button. Click the source select field, and choose Import Audio from the pop-up menu.

In the Import browser, select two or more samples representing the same instrument played at different pitches, then click the Import button. Any import mode may be used. Alchemy analyzes each sample to determine the root pitch if not defined in the filename and sets the root key and key range for each sample zone accordingly.

Select a zone in the keymap editor, and drag its left or right edge so that it overlaps the adjacent zone. The amount of overlap determines the range of the crossfade.

Select the leftmost of the two overlapping zones, and adjust the Right parameter in the inspector zone section. If the overlap between the zones extends over four keys, set this parameter to 4. Select the rightmost of the two overlapping zones, and set the Left parameter in the inspector zone section to the same value used in the previous step. These two zones will now crossfade from one to the other when you play notes in the overlapping region. Import further samples, and repeat the previous three steps for each pair of zones you want to crossfade.

In Logic Pro X, select the zone you want to loop by doing one of the following:. Loop start and end markers appear on the waveform display, with the loop region highlighted between them. Click and hold the loop start marker handle until the waveform zooms in horizontally, then drag left or right to find a suitable loop start point.

Click and hold the loop end marker handle until the waveform zooms in horizontally, then drag left or right to find a suitable loop end point. If required, enable loop crossfading with the Loop XFade button, then drag the crossfade marker left to create a smooth loop. Logic Pro Alchemy zone waveform editor Source components are shown only in advanced view.

The waveform display of the audio associated with the currently selected zone is shown at bottom of the Main edit window. Zones can be selected in the keymap editor or zone parameters in the inspector. Note: If the additive or spectral engines are in use, the waveform display shows the resynthesized sound amplitude envelope rather than the original sample.

When morphing is enabled, vertical gray lines with numbered handles are displayed over the waveform. These are warp markers.

For information on use of warp markers, see Manually time-aligning morphed sounds in Alchemy. The bright vertical blue lines displayed over the waveform, labeled S and E, indicate playback start and end points.

Drag the S or E handle right or left to trim unwanted audio playback from the start or the end of the sound. These can help with manual alignment of warp markers. If the selected zone is set to one of the looping modes, loop start and loop end markers are displayed as faint orange lines, each with a small triangular handle shown in the ruler.

The loop region is highlighted between these markers. The marker with the left-facing handle sets the loop end point. The marker with the right-facing handle sets the loop end point. Drag the triangular marker handles to adjust the loop start and end points. Click and hold the handle of a loop marker to zoom the waveform horizontally, allowing for more accurate placement. Note: You cannot position the loop start point later than the loop end point. You can, however, drag both the loop start and loop end markers to the same position, creating a sustain point rather than a loop region.

This option is available only in the additive or spectral engines, or with a sample loaded into the granular engine, but not in sampler mode. Drag this marker left to define a crossfade region, during which a portion of the sound from before the loop start marker is faded in, while the loop region is faded out. Loops in additive, spectral, or granular modes do not click, but timbral or volume differences between the loop start and end points can often result in an obvious sounding loop.

Unlike conventional samplers, the additive, spectral, and granular engines are capable of looping a single instant within the sound, with loop start and end markers at identical positions. This can work well with some sounds, but with others the loop stage may seem too static and obviously different from the start of the note. Tip: Looping clicks in sampler mode can usually be removed with minimal crossfades, while other timbral or volume discontinuities may need larger crossfades.

Drag the XF marker while playing a note to find a suitable crossfade length. Note: The Loop XFade button is shown in sampler mode only. This parameter is not visible if other import modes are used. Fractional values of the overall waveform length are displayed in some situations, such as manual alignment of warp markers. Use the Additive button at the top of the Main edit window to open the Additive edit window. The Additive edit window allows detailed editing of additive resynthesis data and also lets you design sounds from scratch by creating the additive data yourself.

Additive synthesis represents each sound as a sum of individual partials. The additive data describes each partial in terms of four parameters: amplitude, tune pitch , pan, and phase, each of which changes over time.

You can think of the additive data as a series of snapshots, each of which captures the amplitude, pitch, pan, and phase of every partial at a particular point in time. In between snapshots, each parameter updates smoothly toward the following snapshot value.

When played in succession and with the right timing, the series of snapshots describes a potentially complex and continuously evolving sound. Note: Phase is not an independent parameter. The phase of a partial at any moment in the evolution of a sound is determined by the phase at the start point of the sound and by the possibly changing pitch of the partial.

The phase of each partial is specified only at the absolute start point of the sound. The Additive edit window shows additive data in two graphical displays.

Levels represent the amp, pitch, pan, or phase values of individual partials or partial groups, depending on the chosen display mode. See Logic Pro Alchemy partial bar display. See Logic Pro Alchemy partial envelope. The Partial bar display shows up to partials with independent amplitude, pitch, pan, and phase values at each Partial envelope point.

You can edit individual partials or groups of related partials for each envelope point. For example, raising the amplitude of partial number 72 has no effect when Num Partials is set to a value of Conversely, setting a Num Partials value of has no effect in additive mode unless partial data exists for partials.

When the Phase button is active, the Partial envelope only is updated. Turn on Overall to adjust the amplitude, pitch, and pan values of all partials across the entire sound, without the need to select and edit individual envelope points for each partial.

Also see the Overall button information for the Logic Pro Alchemy partial envelope. Also see Snap Pitch button information below. You can also click the Previous and Next buttons the arrows to step through modes. Group adjustments retain the relative differences between partial values. Hold down Command while dragging to scale adjustments logarithmically.

Note that the Shape pop-up menu affects editing behavior in each mode. Automatically limits partial pitch values to meaningful units when a bar is edited. See the task in this section. Click a partial number to select it without affecting any values. Hold down Shift while dragging to set values with enhanced precision. Create an additive sound from scratch This example introduces the basic principles of additive programming in Alchemy. When you create a new, initialized preset by choosing Initialize Preset from the File button pop-up menu in the Name bar, source A is in VA mode.

For additive synthesis, a different default configuration is better suited. It is not necessary to change any settings from their initial values as soon as you enter the Additive edit window and start creating data; the configuration of source A switches, automatically, to a sensible set of defaults for additive programming.

In Logic Pro X, open advanced view and click the A button to view the source A subpage, then click the source A Edit button to open the Main edit window. Click the Additive button at the top of the Main edit window to view the Additive edit window.

Make sure the Partial bar display Vol button is on and the Overall button is off. Drag from left to right in the Partial bar display to draw in bars that define the harmonic content at the beginning of the sound. Play a few notes on your MIDI controller to confirm that the sound begins with a bright timbre. The default loop mode is Continuous which loops the sound indefinitely when you hold a note.

 
 

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Effects overview in Logic Pro Logic Pro provides an extensive suite of software effect plug-ins that can be used in. your productions. Effects categories include both insert effects and processors that are principally designed. for mastering use. Because you’re free to use almost all plug-ins as you see fit, there are. May 31,  · apple-logic-x-manual-pdf 1/12 Downloaded from on September 14, by guest Kindle File Format Apple Logic X Manual Pdf This is Preview Download Apple Logic X Manual Pdf – ‘Logic Pro X – the Details’ is at the moment only available as pdf and printed book. I was a third way through the formatting of the iBook version when LPX happened. I will update the pdf file version with eh new LPX features first and then finish the iBooks version. Welcome to the official Apple Pro Training Series course for Logic.

 

Logic Pro X User Guide PDF | PDF | Apple Inc. | Synthesizer.Graphically Enanced Manuals for Logic Pro X |

 

Basic Service Manual 4. Document Kit package 5. Battery Figure 2. Step 2 Step 2, Unpack the accessories box. Acoustic Gel 7. Basic color software certificate 9. DVD-RW …. A whole world of recording, writing and production awaits you! This is where the unique approach of the Graphically Enhanced Manuals series comes in.

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Thanks for your interest in my book. Please use the ” Look inside ” feature by clicking on the book cover to browse through the book. This way you will get an idea about my unique concept of “Graphically Enhanced Manuals”. In addition to track channel strips, projects contain output channel strips and a master channel strip which controls the overall volume of the project.

They can also contain auxiliary channel strips, which are used to route the output from multiple tracks to a single destination. Plug-ins Logic Pro includes a collection of professional-quality plug-ins you can use to shape the sound of your recordings and other material.

There are several types of plug-ins used in Logic Pro channel strips: MIDI plug-ins, effects plug-ins, and instrument plug-ins. In general, they modify the sound the input signal of the channel strip.

For more information about working with instrument and effects plug-ins, see Plug-ins overview. Users new to Logic Pro can start working with basic features and a streamlined interface. In particular, users familiar with GarageBand will find a direct match for nearly all GarageBand features. Upgrading Logic Pro users have access to the full power and flexibility of Logic Pro. Advanced tools and additional options are turned on by default, and can be controlled using the Show Advanced Tools and Additional Options checkboxes in the Advanced preferences pane:.

All windows, views, menus, and key commands required for standard music production tasks are accessible in the application. Additional Options The Additional Options preference gives you access to extra capabilities for special tasks beyond the needs of usual music productions. For users upgrading to Logic Pro X, any additional options used by an existing project are turned on by default when you open the project. Some features are only available when Show Advanced Tools is turned on, or when the corresponding Additional Options checkbox is selected.

If a project makes use of features for example, Track Stacks that can only be created or edited when the Show Advanced Tools checkbox is selected, items using the feature will still play when Show Advanced Tools is turned off.

The contents of each window update to show your latest changes. Only one window can have key focus at a given time, this is called the active window. When several normal windows overlap, the active window is the window in the foreground.

The title of the window with key focus is black the titles of other open windows are gray. Inside a window, the area with key focus for example, the Tracks area is bordered by a blue frame. In the Logic Pro main window, different areas can be given key focus by clicking the background or title bar of the window, or by using a tool in the window. Key commands only affect the window or area with key focus. When one floating window covers another, click the one you want to move to the foreground.

Open a window m Choose the window you want to open from the Window menu. If the window is open, but in the background, comes to the foreground. Tip: The key commands for opening different working areas as separate windows are shown beside the window name in the Window menu. Give a window key focus m Click the window title bar, or within the working area. When clicking in the working area, be careful not to accidentally insert an event or region if the Pencil tool is active in the window.

This command assigns key focus to the next open window, if it is fully obscured by other windows. Close a window Do one of the following: m Click the close button at the top-left corner of the window.

Note: If you close all open windows of a project, Logic Pro asks if you want to save your changes. Move and resize windows You can move and resize open windows individually, even across multiple monitors. You can also change the size of all window elements that feature a resize bar. The size relationship of the Tracks area and editors in the Logic Pro main window can also be adjusted, by clicking between them and dragging vertically.

The pointer changes to a Resize pointer. The vertical height of the Mixer is independent of the height you set for the editors. Adjust the size of window elements 1 Move the pointer over the resize bar. Most Logic Pro windows zoom sliders. When you zoom in or out, the top-left and selected event or region remains in the visible area of the screen.

If no selected region or event is visible, zooming is centered around the playhead. You can store three different zoom settings for each window using the Save as Zoom 1—3 key commands.

Use the Recall Zoom 1—3 key commands to recall your zoomed settings. These commands only apply to the active window or window area. Dragging left zooms in, while dragging right zooms out. Zoom the Tracks area or editor using the playhead m Click-hold in the lower section of the ruler, then drag the top of the playhead up or down. Dragging down zooms in, while dragging up zooms out.

Zoom using your computer trackpad m Pinch on the trackpad using two fingers. Pinch open to zoom in, or pinch closed to zoom out. When the pointer is over an empty part of the Tracks area, you can access the Zoom function by pressing and holding the Option key.

Save and recall zoom settings 1 Adjust the zoom setting you want to store. Revert to the previous zoom setting m Click the background with the Zoom tool. This action returns the zoom level to the original setting, or backtracks through previous zoom steps if the tool was used multiple times. Scale plug-in windows You can adjust the size of individual plug-in windows to increase their readability.

You can also adjust the size at which all plug-in windows open in the Mixer Display preferences pane. Adjust the size of an individual plug-in window Do one of the following: m Drag the lower-right corner of the plug-in window. You work on different types of tasks, such as arranging the overall project or refining individual regions, at different levels.

In many cases, you can switch between these different levels directly, without needing to open or access another window. Move one display level higher Do one of the following: m Click the Display Level button in the upper-left corner of a window. In the Piano Roll and Step Editors, a step up the display hierarchy shows the events of all regions in the Tracks area. In the Event List, clicking the Display Level button moves you up one level in the display hierarchy.

The display remains much the same but shows a list of regions, rather than a list of individual events, along with region positions, names, track numbers, and lengths. The MIDI region that you were just editing is selected within the list of region names.

In the Score Editor, clicking the Display Level button takes you to the higher display level. Double-clicking a staff at an empty point , reverts to a lower display level. Control how windows change as the playhead moves You can control how windows update to reflect changes to the playhead position using Catch modes. When you work in Catch mode, the visible section of a window follows the playhead during playback or recording.

If the Catch button is inactive, the display does not update, even when the playhead moves past the right edge of the visible portion of the window. You also have the option of using Catch mode together with the Scroll in Play setting. If the Catch function of the window is also activated, the playhead remains in the middle of the window, while the background scrolls smoothly from right to left.

Turn on Catch mode m Click the Catch button in the Tracks area or editor menu bar. For example, you could set up two Event Lists, one showing arrange regions, and the other showing their contents, then click a region in the first Event List to update the contents of the second one. The Link mode options—Off, Same Level, and Content—allow you to control how information is displayed when working with related editor windows.

In this case, the display level is always one level lower that of the top window. You can also use Content Link mode in one Tracks area, to display the folder contents of another Tracks area. The Score Editor also includes a Link button that you can use to set the Link mode, and view the current Link mode. This layout of various windows, including their display size, zoom levels, position, and other settings, is called a screenset.

Once defined, you can save, and freely switch between different screensets, much as you might between different computer displays. Screensets are numbered from 1 to 99 using only the 1 to 9 computer keys—the 0 key is assigned to the Stop command by default. It happens automatically, as soon as you switch to another screenset. Thus, without any effort, your current working view is always stored as the current screenset.

Create a screenset 1 Press any numerical key except 0; for example, 7. For two-digit screensets, hold down Control while entering the first digit.

Note: When you choose a screenset number that has not been saved, a maximized main window opens. Recall or switch between screensets Do one of the following: m Type the number of the screenset 1 to 9.

Note: Screensets 1 to 9 can be recalled by freely defined key commands, not only the number keys on your computer keyboard. This allows you to use the number keys for other purposes, such as opening or closing windows. The 1 to 9 key commands are called Recall Screenset 1—9 in the Key Commands window. The inserted meta event has a default value of 50 Project Select.

This changes the name to screenset. Protect, copy, rename, and delete screensets You can protect, copy, rename, and delete a screenset. A bullet appears in front of the screenset number to indicate that it is locked. Repeat the key or menu command to unlock the screenset. The default is the visible window names. The name is automatically updated whenever a window or view is opened or closed.

Import screensets from another project You can import screensets from another project. Note: If accessing this feature via the All Files Browser, you also need to click the Import Settings button, which appears after clicking the Import button. When you select a tool, the pointer changes to show the selected tool. Some tools are common to all working areas, while other tools are specific to one or more particular working areas.

A tool the Scissors, for example basically affects the regions or events that you click. If multiple regions are selected, they are all affected by the tool the Scissors tool would cut all selected regions at the same playhead position. Tools are accessed from the Tool menus, found in the upper-right corner of all windows that allow direct region, event, or file editing and handling operations.

You can assign separate tools to the Left-click and Command-click Tool menus. If you have a suitable mouse, you can also assign the right mouse button. For information about assigning tools, see Assign tools.

The pointer adopts the shape of the active tool, allowing you to identify it by looking at the pointer graphic. Left-click Tool menu Command-click Tool menu. The Command-click Tool menu is located on the right, by default, but is located in the middle when a third Right-click tool is assigned. See General preferences on page Assign the Left-click tool m Click the Left-click Tool menu to open it, then choose a tool.

Assign the Command-click tool m Click the Command-click Tool menu, then choose a tool. Choose the appropriate menu item to assign the tool, which is available when the right mouse button is pressed while editing. Left-click Tool menu. Choose a tool by clicking it. When the Tool menu is open, you can also use the key shown next to a tool to select it. Note: When you choose a tool from the Tool menu by right-clicking, the tool is assigned to the left mouse button.

Right-double-clicking in the working area of the active window resets the assigned tool to the Pointer tool. The Loop pointer and behavior can still be accessed in these click zones by holding down Option. Common tools The most common tools are briefly described in the following section. Tools for specific working areas or editors are covered in the respective chapters.

Pointer tool The Pointer is the default tool when you open Logic Pro. The pointer also takes the shape of this tool when outside the working area, when making a menu selection, or entering a value. Pencil tool The Pencil tool is used to add new regions or events. You can also select, drag, loop, and alter the length of regions or events using the Pencil tool. Eraser tool The Eraser tool is used to delete selected regions or events. When you click a region or event with the Eraser tool, all of the currently selected regions or events are deleted similar to pressing the Delete key.

The Eraser tool can also delete an unselected region or event by clicking it. Text tool The Text tool is used to name regions and other items, or add text to a musical score.

Scissors tool The Scissors tool is used to split regions and events, allowing individual sections to be copied, moved, or deleted. Solo tool Click-holding a region with the Solo tool lets you listen to the selected region or event apart from the rest of the project. Moving the mouse horizontally also scrubs any events the pointer touches. Mute tool Clicking an event or region with the Mute tool prevents it from playing. You can unmute the region or event by clicking it a second time with the Mute tool.

If multiple regions or events are selected, the mute state of the clicked region or event applies to all selected regions or events. Zoom tool The Zoom tool allows you to zoom up to the full window size by dragging to select a specific region. You can revert to the normal zoom level by clicking the window background with this tool. You can also access the Zoom function—even when other tools are active—by pressing and holding Control-Option.

Flex tool The Flex tool provides you with quick access to fundamental Flex editing functionality, without having to turn on Flex view in the Tracks area. Logic Pro includes an Undo History window where you can see all edits that can be undone in a time-ordered list. You can also change the number of steps that can be undo in Logic Pro preferences.

Virtually all edits, including moves, deletions, renaming, and parameter changes; and the creation of new events, regions, channel strips, and more, can be undone. The Undo History window displays a list of all actions that can be undone.

The most recent step editing operation , which will be the first to be undone, is selected. Undo or redo multiple steps m Click any entry to undo or redo all steps between the clicked and highlighted entries.

This will undo or redo an isolated step without influencing all steps between the clicked and highlighted entries. No undos or redos are possible for the deleted steps, once the Undo History has been erased.

Download additional content After you install Logic Pro on your computer, additional content, including software instruments, Drum Kit Designer drum kits, loops, and compatibility content, may be available. You can view the available content not installed on your computer, and select content to download, any time you are working, using the Additional Content window.

Jam Packs and some other content packages have a disclosure triangle, which you can click to show and select individual content types instruments or loops to download.

Some additional content may be needed to perform certain tasks. In these instances, a dialog appears, informing you that additional content is needed, and asking if you want to download it. In the Drum Kit Designer plug-in, drum kits not yet installed include a Download button that opens the Additional Content window. You can also view information directly in the application using the Quick Help feature. Quick Help You can view a brief description of windows, controls, and other elements of the Logic Pro interface without leaving the application or interrupting your workflow.

Logic Pro Help Describes the Logic Pro interface, commands, and menus and gives step-by-step instructions for creating Logic Pro projects and for accomplishing specific tasks.

Logic Pro Instruments Provides comprehensive instructions for using the powerful collection of instruments included with Logic Pro. Logic Pro Effects Provides comprehensive instructions for using the powerful collection of effects included with Logic Pro.

Logic Remote For iPad users, a separate application is available that lets you view detailed Help information on your iPad while you work in Logic Pro. To connect audio devices to your computer, you can use an audio interface. Some audio and MIDI interfaces require that you install a device driver before opening Logic Pro, so the application can find and use the device at startup. You can connect microphones, electric musical instruments, and other musical equipment to your computer, or to an audio interface or other audio device.

Logic Pro supports input from digital audio interfaces up to a maximum sample rate of kHz, and a maximum bit depth of 24 bits. Also make sure the audio interface uses a format supported by your computer.

If possible, you should avoid using different audio devices for input and output. Connect a microphone to your computer Do one of the following: m Connect the microphone to an input on the audio interface using a standard XLR cable. After you connect a microphone, you choose the input source for the track you want to record to; you can also turn on monitoring to hear sound from your microphone as you play. You can record the sound from your guitar to an audio track, and use the amps and pedalboard effects to shape your guitar sound.

There are several ways to connect an electric instrument to your computer. After you connect an electric instrument, you choose the input source for the track you want to record to; you can also turn on monitoring to hear your instrument as you play.

To increase the input signal, you can connect the guitar to a preamplifier, and connect the preamplifier to your computer. You can also connect a mixer, speakers or monitors, headphones, and other equipment to hear the audio output from Logic Pro. Logic Pro supports plug-and-play for audio interfaces, making it possible to connect and turn on a new audio interface while Logic Pro is open. An alert appears when you connect a new device, and prompts you to select and confirm the audio interface and driver you want to use.

All digital audio interfaces can be susceptible to latency—a noticeable delay between the time the audio signal is produced, and when you hear it. You should always attach your audio interface directly to the computer, rather than through a hub, or daisy-chaining it through another device. Doing so can cause an unacceptable amount of latency, particularly with slower USB 1. PCIe provides extremely high bandwidth and fast data transfer rates, allowing you to record and play back large numbers of files at the highest possible sample rates and bit depths.

ExpressCards available include audio interfaces, hard disk controller eSATA cards, networking, wireless adapters, and more. After connecting an audio interface to your computer, be sure to set the audio interface as your audio input. You can then set the individual inputs on the audio interface as the input source for the audio tracks you want to record to.

For details on choosing the audio input, see Devices preferences. A variety of speakers is available that you can connect to your computer or audio interface. The way you connect them depends on your system and the type of speakers you use. Surround projects require a surround speaker system. For information about using speakers in a Surround project, see Speaker placement. After connecting speakers or monitors to your computer, be sure to set them as your audio output.

For details, see Devices preferences. For other audio devices, you may need to install, select, activate, and configure the driver for the device. For devices that do require an audio driver, you configure the driver in Audio Devices preferences. Configure Apogee and Euphonix audio devices You can configure Apogee Digital or Euphonix audio hardware in the utilities provided by these manufacturers. The configuration utilities for connected devices can be opened directly from Logic Pro.

Consult the documentation provided with the device for specific configuration instructions. For more information on use, see AMS Help. Some MIDI interfaces are automatically recognized by your Mac, but others may require you to install driver software. Be sure to follow the instructions that came with the keyboard, which may include installing the correct driver on your computer.

Connect the MIDI interface to your computer. In port Out port Tone generator In port. Each MIDI channel can be assigned a tone or sound, such as piano, strings, bass, and so on. All devices can receive on all 16 MIDI channels. Each device plays the incoming data with the sound assigned to channel 1.

As this example illustrates, MIDI can be separated onto different channels, but cannot be separated between devices, unless you use a multi-output MIDI interface. Not only does this allow you to play up to 64 different sounds simultaneously through your tone generators, it also allows full MIDI control for each channel of each device. This becomes increasingly important when arranging and orchestrating such a large number of instrument parts.

For example, if you buy a new keyboard to be used without a sequencer, and connect it to an amplifier, you would expect the device to make a sound when you press its keys—in other words, the keyboard is directly connected to the sound generator. In situations where you want to control or record another sound module or software instrument with your keyboard, you would hear both the keyboard sound due to the direct keyboard—to—tone generator connection and the sound of the software or MIDI instrument.

This is why the keyboard must be separated from its own internal sound generator. This function is known as Local Off, and is set directly on your keyboard. Logic Pro will still be able to communicate with your keyboard tone generator just like any other connected, keyboardless sound module or software instrument. You start working in Logic Pro by creating a project, or opening an existing project.

Each project has project properties including tempo, key and time signature, and more. You can preview projects in the Finder using Quick Look, clean up and rename projects, and share data and settings between projects. A project can include assets, such as audio and video files, sampler instruments and samples for the EXS24 or Ultrabeat, and Space Designer reverb impulse response files. You can manage project assets in a variety of ways.

You can also create and save project alternatives, each with a unique name and different settings, and access saved backups of a project. In the Project Chooser, you can choose a template to use as the starting point for a new project. Each project has project properties including the project tempo, time and key signature, and more. For full details about project properties, see Project properties overview. When Show Advanced Tools is selected in the Advanced preferences pane, you can choose to have Logic Pro create a project folder that contains the project file, along with subfolders for assets and other files used in the project including audio files, impulse responses, sample instruments, samples, and Ultrabeat samples.

When you create a project folder for a new project, the project file is saved in the project folder, and the file types selected in the Save dialog are saved to the corresponding subfolder in the project folder. The new project opens. When you create a project, the project is automatically saved. The first time you close the project, close Logic Pro, or create a project alternative, the Save dialog appears, so you can set the project name and location.

When Show Advanced Tools is selected in the Advanced preferences pane, you can also choose whether to save the project as a single file package or folder, and select which assets are saved in the project. For more information about saving projects, see Save projects. For more information, see General preferences. You can also open several projects simultaneously, allowing you to copy or move data between them, or to compare different versions of a project. Opening projects created in earlier Logic Pro versions You can open projects created in Logic Pro 5 or later.

When you open a project created in an earlier version of Logic Pro, the project is converted to a Logic Pro X project. In the Save dialog, you can select whether to save the converted project as a project package or a project folder.

By default, the converted project is saved inside the existing project folder, if one exists. By default, the existing project folder and subfolders are used, if present, and any additional subfolders needed for project assets are created. Important: After a project is saved as a Logic Pro X project, it can no longer be opened in earlier versions of Logic Pro.

If another project is open, a dialog appears, asking whether you want to close the open project. Open multiple projects 1 Open one project, then open one or more additional projects. Switch between open projects m Choose the project name at the bottom of the Window menu. The active project is marked with a checkmark.

Logic Pro shows a dialog when you reopen the project, asking if you want to use the auto-saved version. If you choose not to, Logic Pro opens the last manually saved version of the project. When Show Advanced Tools is selected in the Advanced preferences pane, you can save a project as a package, or save it as a project folder that contains the project file, along with subfolders for assets and other files used in the project including audio files, impulse responses, sample instruments, samples, and Ultrabeat samples.

When you save a project as a project folder, the project package is saved in the project folder, and the asset types selected in the Save or Save As dialog are saved to the corresponding subfolders in the project folder. When you save a project, you can choose whether to copy audio files and other assets in the project or reference them in another location.

Saving assets in the project makes it safer to move or copy the project without losing the connection to these files. For more information, see Manage project assets on page You can also save a project as a template, and use the template to create new projects. Saving templates makes it easier to create projects with frequently used instruments or Mixer configurations, or video or surround projects, for example.

Screensets can be customized for each template, or you can copy them between templates using the various Import Settings commands. For more information, see Import data and settings from other projects. The first time you save a new project, the Save dialog appears. In the Save dialog, you can type a name choose the location to save the project. When you choose Save a Copy as, copies of all your recordings are saved in the project copy.

You can use the Save a Copy As option for archiving and moving data. You can organize your templates in folders with the Create Folder button in the Save As Template dialog. When all your user templates are placed in subfolders, the subfolder names are shown below the factory collections.

Tip: You can add descriptive text to your templates by adding a comment to the project file in the Finder. The Templates dialog displays the icon assigned to a template file, making it easy to change if you wish.

For more information on how to add a comment to a file, or change the icon of a file, see Mac Help. Important: If audio files and other assets are stored in a project, they are deleted with the project. Delete a project 1 Locate the project in the Finder.

By default, projects are saved in the Logic subfolder in the Music folder on your computer. After you empty the Trash, the project cannot be recovered. When you play a project, playback starts from the current position of the playhead. If Cycle mode is turned on, playback starts from the beginning of the cycle area. While the project is playing, the Go to Beginning button in the control bar becomes a Stop button.

Set the playhead position The playhead is the vertical line showing the current playback position in the Tracks area and other time-based windows such as the Audio Track Editor, Piano Roll Editor, and Score Editor.

Set the playhead position in the LCD Do one of the following: m Click-hold any of the numbers in the Position display and drag vertically. The LCD can display the playhead position in Beats or Time format, or both, depending on which display mode you choose. Beats displays the playhead position in bars, beats, beat divisions, and ticks, while Time displays the playhead position in hours, minutes, seconds, and fractions of a second.

You can edit the individual divisions of the Position display by dragging, or edit the position as a whole by double-clicking and typing. Set the playhead to the start of a marker m Click anywhere on the marker while holding down Option. You can click the buttons to activate or deactivate functions, or use the corresponding key commands to speed up your workflow. You can customize the control bar to show additional buttons for other functions.

For more information, see Customize the control bar on page Click-hold to fast rewind, or drag to scrub playback. Command-clicking moves the playhead to the previous marker. Click-hold to fast forward, or drag to scrub playback. Command-clicking moves the playhead to the next marker. Click a second time to move the playhead to the start of the project, or to the left locator position when in Cycle mode. Right-click for more stop options. Default key command assignment: Return. Stop button.

Right-click for more play options. The left locator defines the cycle area start point. Use the cycle area to repeatedly play, or record over, a section.

The right locator defines the cycle area end point. Default key command assignment: Shift-Return. The playhead moves to the left locator position. The playhead moves to the last locate position. Only applies if there is an active marquee selection. Only applies if there is an active cycle area. Only applies if a region or folder is selected. Use the Play button transport functions 1 Control-click the Play button in the control bar.

Playback stops at the end of the selection unless Cycle mode is on. Most of these transport key commands have no default assignment, and need to be assigned manually. See Assign key commands. Press the Space bar. Note: You can assign this command directly to the Stop button, by Control-clicking the Stop button and choosing the setting in the shortcut menu.

Repeated presses of the opposing shuttle key slow down the shuttle speed, and eventually change the winding direction. Shuttle disables Cycle mode. Shuttling is halted by the Stop command. Note: There are also Go To key commands for navigating with markers. For more information, see Navigate using markers on page Change the controls on the control bar 1 Control-click the control bar, then choose Customize Control Bar from the menu. Open a giant beats display or giant time display Do one of the following: m To open a giant beats display: Click the icon on the left side of the LCD, then choose Open Giant Beats Display.

You can open multiple giant beats and time display windows, and resize and reposition each one independently. Remember that this value is dependent on the frame rate: at 25 fps, a frame is 40 milliseconds long, at 30 fps, approximately 33 ms.

After the value, you will see fpc. Take care, as this display can easily be confused with the bpm display. Left locator Right locator. When Cycle mode is on, the cycle area is displayed as a yellow strip in the upper part of the ruler or in the center, when the secondary ruler is visible.

The left and right locators are the start and end points of the cycle area. When Cycle mode is turned off, the cycle area and the locators are no longer visible. You can also create a skip cycle to skip a passage during playback; for example, to try out different transitions from one project section to another without moving regions. You can add buttons to the control bar to set, go to, or start playback from the left or right locator position, and to swap locators for a skip cycle.

For information, see Customize the control bar. Turn Cycle mode on or off Do one of the following: m Click the Cycle button in the control bar or press C. Set the cycle area in the ruler m Drag left or right in the top part of the ruler.

The cycle area appears as a yellow strip in the ruler, and Cycle mode is automatically turned on. The left and right locator positions appear in both beats and time formats in the LCD. Left locator. If the note crosses multiple bars, the locators encompass all the bars in which the note is located. When Auto Set Locators is selected, the Cycle button changes to indicate that the cycle area is set automatically. Resize the cycle area Do one of the following: m Grab the left or right edge of the cycle area to move the start or end points.

This works even when the stripe is outside the visible range, or Cycle mode is turned off. Create a skip cycle 1 Set the cycle area to the part of the project you want to skip.

The cycle area changes color, indicating that it is now a skip cycle. You can add the Swap Left and Right Locators button by customizing the control bar. With the Chase Events function, Logic Pro analyzes the project to include some or all of these events when the project plays back.

There is a potential problem when using Chase Events with notes used to trigger a drum loop in a sampler. Unless you start the MIDI region precisely at the beginning of the sample loop, the sample will be triggered at the wrong time and will play out of sync with other regions at least until the next trigger note.

Avoid triggering sampler drum loops when chasing note events 1 In the Track inspector, select the No Transpose parameter of your drum loop instrument. The No Transpose parameter actually prevents transposition by the region playback parameters, which is also not desirable for drum sounds or loops.

 
 

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